Dr Bemelmans studied medicine at the University of Maastricht; after his training he left for 8 months to work in the transplant centre of the University of Wisconsin (USA) where he did research in the field of transplant surgery with supervisors Professor John Belzer and Professor Southard. After his return to the Netherlands he started with his PhD research which resulted in the thesis: Inflammatory Cytokines in Obstructive Jaundice (1994). He then began his training as a surgeon in the Maastricht University Hospital where he spent the first 2.5 years of his training conducted by Professor Kootstra; subsequently he resided 3.5 years for the rest of his training in the Wever Hospital in Heerlen conducted by Professor Brink. After finishing his education in general surgery (1999) he continued his specialisation in the field of the liver and pancreas surgery and liver transplantation at the University Hospital of Paris conducted by Professor Bismuth (Paul Brousse Hospital) where he worked as a fellow for 15 months. From 2001 he has been working in the MUMC where he further specialised in the treatment HPB tumours and in soft tissue tumours conducted by Professor von Meyenfeldt.